Many types of apparatus are used for scientific work in the laboratories. however, we have compiled all possible common and comprehensive list of 20 laboratory apparatus and their uses. they enable us to carry out experiments successfully and make accurate measurements or observations. all common laboratory apparatus should be drawn in outline only and in their correct proportions.
50 common Laboratory Apparatus is as follows:
- Bunsen burner
- Tripod stand
- Wire gauze
- Stand bath
- Test tube
- A Test tube holder
- Test tube stand
- Conical or titration flask
- Glass funnel
- Rubber stopper
- Reagent bottle
- Wash bottle
- Glass tubing
- Ring Clamp
- china dish (Evaporating Dish)
- Crucible tong
- Crucible with cover
- Measuring cylinders
- Mortar and pestle
- Flat bottomed flask
- Filter paper
- Measuring flasks
- No of weights
- Stirring rod
- Separatory funnel
- pH meter
- Burette clamp
- Buchner funnel
- Test tube rack
- Test tube brush
- Watch glass
- Iron stand
- the Iron Clamp
- Iron ring
- Rubber tubing
- Litmus paper
- Clay Triangles
- Pipet Bulb
Some of the items of common laboratory apparatus used in the laboratory are shown below. Names and functions of the apparatus used in the laboratory are:
A Bunsen burner is a source of heat or mechanical appliances for which absolute safety is required while using Bunsen Burner. it is linked to a flammable gas source. Mostly a knob is used to adjust the gas flow amount and a pivot collar that manages airflow. Both the knob and collar must be adjusted to get an excellent flame for heating things.
It is usually made of stainless steel or Aluminium having three supporting legs. Apparatus to be heated is placed on the tripod stand. It is mainly used to support or hold the beakers or flasks during the experiments. A Bunsen burner is placed underneath the tripod stand due to its height.
It is the iron wire gauze piece posted with asbestos in the center. It is placed on the tripod stand so that the flame does not touch the glass apparatus directly, reducing the danger of its breaking.
A test tube is a glass tube with one end closed and the other end open. The closed-end is in a round shape. Test tubes are used in laboratories to hold small samples. They are mainly used for qualitative comparison and assessment. A very commonplace to see test tubes is the biochemistry lab. When large numbers of the sample are needed to be compared and tested, these test tubes are used to make this easier. They are also easily covered or capped with a glass or rubber stopper.
Beakers are a very common laboratory instrument and are widely useful in the laboratory as a reaction container.they are also used for holding liquid and solid samples or catch liquids from different titrations or filtrates from filtering operations. A beaker is a simple can in most labs. It is used for heating, stirring, and mixing chemicals. Most beakers have spouts on their rims to easy pouring.
They also usually have lips around their rims and markings to measure the volume of liquid they contain. They are not a piece of proper equipment to measure liquids. Beakers are available in a wide range depending on their sizes, such as 50cm3, 100cm3, 250cm3, or 500cm3 are available.
It is also known as a Conical Flask. The Erlenmeyer flask was titled in 1861, after its inventor. It has a slim neck and widens toward its base. This allows easy swirling and mixing of the flask without too much possibility of spilling. The narrow opening also allows the use of a glass or rubber stopper. It can comfortably be clamped to a ring stand as well as shaken or heated easily. Once again, the numberings on the side are meant mainly for estimation not for precision.
Safety Tip: A significant safety tip here is to never heat the flask while it is covered. This causes pressure build-up that results in an explosion.
A lab funnel is also like any other funnel but it was specially designed to be used in a laboratory. They are made up of glass or plastic and have either a long stem or a short stem, depending on the purpose, they are needed for. There are a lot of sizes that can be chosen depending upon the amount of liquid that needs to go through them easily and quickly. Funnels are of different sizes 3cm, 5cm, 8cm etc.
Evaporating Dish (China Dish)
It is a small dish made of porcelain used for evaporating and concentrating the dilute solutions. It is available in different sizes.
Graduated or Measuring cylinders
This is an essential measuring tool for the volume of any liquid. There are a lot of markings, up and down the whole length of the container with special increments. Graduated cylinders are of many sizes. The smaller they are in size or diameter, the more exact or accurate the volume measurements will be. When reviewing the volume from a graduated cylinder, you will consider that the liquid seems to have some indentation.
The liquid around the edges of Graduated Cylinders will be higher than the liquid in the center. This is known as a meniscus. Keep the cylinder at a leveled surface to properly read the volume. They are also available in different sizes 5cm3, 10cm3, 20cm3, 50cm3, 100cm3 and 1000cm3.
Stirring Rod or glass stirring rod is used for mixing and stirring of different chemicals. it is made up of solid glass (borosilicate or ) having rounded edges slightly thick and longer than a soda water straw. Stirring Rods are often 10 to 45 cm long with almost a half-centimeter in diameter. it is also available in the triangular paddle, flat paddle, or round button shape.
Measuring flasks OR Volumetric flasks
A volumetric flask is a round flask with a flat bottom and long neck. Volumetric Flask is used to measure the exact volume of liquids. There is a short line on the neck that hints how far to fill the flask. Special caps are available that will not let anything in or out through the flask. These are available in different sizes i.e., 100cm3, 250cm3, 500cm3 and 1000 cm3.
Just Remember: The temperature affects the volume; therefore always avoid using liquids that will vary in temperature (for example hot water that will cool).
Burets are often used for the addition of a precise and accurate volume of the liquids. with the use of burets, you can measure or determine the volume of liquids up to nearly to 0.01 mL. These are normally attached to a ring stand with a clamp. A buret is also like a glass tube that is open from the top and becomes a narrow pointed opening at the bottom side. Right above the bottom opening; there is a stopcock.
This stopcock can be turned to control the released amount of liquid. There are also certain markings along the length of the buret that indicates the volume of any liquid present in them. A buret is especially used for extremely accurate addition of liquids. By slightly adjusting the stopcock, the amount of releasing liquid can be slowed down to a single drop every few seconds.
Buret is one of the most accurate tools in the laboratory. To determine the added amount of liquid in solution, write down the readings, how much is present initially in the buret. Then when you were finished adding liquids, write down how much liquid is left. Now, Subtract the final amount of liquid from the initial amount and you have the exact volume of liquid which is added.
Forcep is derived from a Latin word forcipes used for holding and grasping small objects in laboratories. they are used when things are picked up in bulk or when large fingers are unable to collect little and tiny things. besides this, “forceps” is a very common word in the medical field. in the common world, forces are referred to different names like pliers, tweezers, clip, stongs, or clamps, etc. basically there are two major types of forceps:
- Non-disposable forceps
- Disposable forceps
Pipettes as Laboratory Apparatus
There is a large variety of pipettes that are designed to accomplish many specific goals. However, they all are for measuring the exact volume of liquids and then placing liquids into the other containers. Generally available sizes are 10cm3, 20cm3 and 25cm3.
The temperature of a substance is measured using a thermometer. The temperature in the laboratory is usually measured in units of degree Celsius (˚C).
Bunsen burner is lightened by the striker.
A watch glass circular convex or concave rounded piece of the glass often used to hold a small amount of solid or liquid, to evaporate a liquid, while being weighed and many other purposes. Watch Glasses also used for different purposes like evaporation.
it can also work as a lid for a beaker to prevent dust from entering in a beaker. in chemistry Lab, two types of Watch glasses are used such as glass watch glasses and plastic watch glasses. both types have various sizes and varieties in the market. the glass type is more famous than plastic-type. mostly glass type is reused and plastic-type are disposable i.e., for one-time use.
Pipet Bulb is used to draw different liquids into the pipet.
It is used for hanging (thermometer), clamping/holding (burette, round bottom flask, etc.).
ring clamp is used with a ring stand to hold different types of glassware like funnel or beaker.
Nowadays polythene wash bottles are used in the laboratory for storing distilled water for various operations such as transferring precipitates from a container to the filter paper or washing the precipitates. When the bottle is pressed with hand, water comes out through the jet in the form of a fine stream.
Flat bottomed – Florence flasks, AKA boiling flasks
It is also known as a boiling flask. Florence flask contained a round bottom with a long neck. It is used for holding liquids and can easily be heated and swirled. It can also be capped by glass or rubber stoppers easily. Once again, safety edict that this flask never is heated when covered or capped with stopper. It build-up pressure and can result in an explosion.
Scoopula often used for transfer solids to different locations.
you can use Erlenmeyer flask to place liquid samples or to catch filtrates as a laboratory apparatus.
Utility Clamp resembles a couple of scissors often used to secure glassware to a ring stand. it has a screw in the middle that is used to wide the adjustments between two-prong. ring stand or retort stand is attached to it. round laboratory glassware is held e.g flasks and beakers etc. with the help of Utility Clamp. there are three major parts of Utility Clamp:
- 2-prong adjust
- metal rod
Ring Stand is helpful as a laboratory apparatus for holding or clamping different lab glassware so that it does not fall down.
they have used for the addition of liquids/solutions in the shape of drops.
Test tube stand
It is made of wood, polythene, or steel on which test tubes can be placed in an upright position. Test Tubes are normally held in a test tube rack. Test Tube Racks are specifically designed for the purpose. If these test tubes become risky to touch with bare hands (in a case due to heat or some other reason); test-tube tongs are used to move them.
Test Tube Clamp
Clay Triangles as Laboratory Apparatus
the use of Clay Triangles seen very rare but here we can’t miss an opportunity to describe every single opportunity to discuss every apparatus. Clay Triangles are placed on a ring that is attached to a stand that provides support to funnel, evaporating dish or crucible, etc.
Ballance is Used to measuring different small masses.
List of Measurement Equipment used in Laboratory
- Triple beam balance
- Centigram balance
- Platform balance
- Analytical balance
- Florence flask
- Graduated cylinder
- Distilling flask
- Volumetric flask
Some common SAFETY EQUIPMENT used in lab-ware
- Safety shower
- Fire extinguisher
- Fire blanket
- Fume hood
- Spill neutralizer
- First aid kit
DIFFERENT EQUIPMENT USED FOR ANALYSIS in Laboratory Apparatus
What are some HEAT SOURCES used in the Common laboratory apparatus?
- Alcohol lamp
- Bunsen burner
General instructions for Using Common laboratory apparatus
- Conduct yourself in a responsible manner at all times in the laboratory.
- Always wear a lab coat and safety goggles in the lab.
- Girls must use Scarf and close hair when working in the laboratory.
- Never work alone in the laboratory.
- Do not bring eatables in the laboratory.
- Never taste or smell any compound or gas, to smell gases always waft the fumes or gas towards your nose.
- You must report immediately on an accident or breakage.
- Develop a habit to put things back at their proper place after use.
- Do not mix the chemicals.
- Always take care of yourself and your calls fellows while working in the laboratory.
- Do not work on chemicals for which you do not have instructions.
- Read the FIRST-AID instructions.