Buffer Solution: Definition, Applications and Examples in Acid and Base

Definition of Buffers

A solution which tends to resist changes in pH is called buffer solution.

Preparation of Buffer Solution

A buffer solution Preparation is specified pH values are prepared by half neutralization of the weak acid (e.g. CH3COOH) with a strong base (NaOH) or a weak base (NH4OH) with a strong acid (HCl).buffer solution

Buffer solution of Acetic Acid and Sodium Acetate (Acidic Buffer)

Acetic acid dissociates to give acetate in a follows:

CH3COOH   ======== CH3COO  +  H+

Sodium acetate dissociates to give also acetate ions as follows:

CH3COONa   ========  CH3COO   +  Na+

When these two are mixed to make a buffer. There is an increase in the concentration of the acetate ions. Acetic acid equilibrium is pushed to left. So, H+ concentration is reduced and un-dissociated acetic acid is formed and there is no change in pH of the mixture.

Effect of Addition of Acid

In case of added acid, additional H+ ions in the solution will combine acetate ions (CH3COO) to produce un-dissociated acetic acid and pH will remain same.

CH3COO _  +  H+       CH3COOH

Effect of Addition of Base

A small amount of base (NaOH) added to the buffer solution will be neutralized by the reaction will weak acid and pH will remain same.

OH  + CH3COOH   ========  CH3COO-  + H2O

Applications of Buffer

  • the use of the buffer is an important part of the many industrial processes, such as electroplating, manufacturing of the leather, etc.
  • buffers are used extensively in the analytical chemistry and are used to calibrate pH.
  • Human blood is buffered to pH of 7.3. by the means of bicarbonates, phosphates and complex protein system.

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