The Major Difference between Peroxisomes and Glyoxisomes is that Peroxisomes have a lipid bilayer membrane that controls what enters and exists them and have urate oxidase crystaline core while Glyoxisomes are specialized Peroxisomes having single membrane and have matrix ( Internal content) finely granular.
Peroxisomes are cytoplasmic organelles. De-Duve and coworkers isolated peroxisome from liver cells and from some other tissues. These are present in both animals and plants. They are also found in protozoa, yeast, and many types of cells of higher plant.
These are enclosed in a single membrane. Their size is 0.5 pm in diameter. They contain H202 — producing enzymes like oxidases and catalases. They also contain some oxidative (which cause oxidation) enzymes like peroxidase, Catalase, glycolic acid oxidase and some other enzymes.
Peroxisomes are involved ¡n the formation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H202). The word peroxisome is derived from hydrogen peroxide.
Glyoxisomes are cytoplasmic organelles. These are present only in plant cells. These are most abundant in plant seedlings. Glyoxisomes are present only for short period of germination of seed. These are present in lipid-rich seeds like castor oil and soybeans. These are absent in lipid-poor seed like pea.
These are membranous bound organelles. They contain enzyme like glycolic acid oxidase, Catalase and number of other enzymes that are not present in animal cells.
The germinating plant or seedling depends on stored fatty acids of seed for obtaining energy. These germinating seedlings convert the stored fatty acid in to carbohydrates.
It is one of the primary activities of seed during germination. This conversion takes place through a cycle called glyoxylate cycle. The enzymes of this cycle are present in Glyoxisomes.
Glyoxisomes play an important role in both catabolic and anabolic pathways in plants. Glyoxisome break the fatty acid into succinate in lipid rich seeds like castor bean.