AIDS: Discovery and Symptoms with the Mechanism of Action
Discovery of HIV AIDS
HIV AIDS was discovered in the 1980s in some young males. All these patients with AIDS were homosexual (sex between two males). Later, some non-homosexual patients with AIDS were discovered. HIV Symptoms were discussed below.
They received a blood transfusion and or blood products. In 1984, the virus of AIDS was discovered at the Pasteur Institute of France and the National Institute of Health in the USA. In 1986, the virus was named the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
- In the beginning, there are no prominent symptoms of the disease for months or years. There is a flue like attack in the early stage.
- The immune system is damaged i.e. acute weakness is the main symptom.
- Pneumonia, fever, dementia, and diarrhea diseases are developed due to the loss of immunity.
- Skin cancer, called Kaposi’s sarcoma may occur. It causes death.
- Blood poisoning (septicemia) and other forms of cancer may occur.
- Lymphocytes (cells of the immune system) are affected, so brain cells are damaged, the brain shrinks, memory loss, and mental disorders take place. The behavior of the patient is also changed.
Mechanism of Action
The HIV virus affects helper T- Lymphocytes (white blood cells). T- Lymphocytes are Major components of the immune system. The increase in infection of HIV decreases the number of T- Lymphocytes. It results in the failure of the immune system. So the infected person is attacked by many diseases.
HIV also infects the cells of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The latest studies show that this virus also infects and multiplies in monkeys. But they do not cause disease in them. It means that HIV is host-specific.
Methods of Transmissions
HIV – the virus can be transmitted to other persons by blood or semen because it is active only in body fluid. The methods of its transmission are as follows:
(1) Blood transfusion:
When already infected blood by HIV is transfused into the body of a person, then this virus enters the body.
(2) By Intravenous Method:
When unsterilized syringes and needles are used, HIV may enter the body.
(3) Through Cuts and Wounds:
Through cuts and open wounds, viruses can be transferred from one person to another.
(4) From Mother to Baby:
The virus can be transferred from mother to baby through the placenta at birth or through milk food from the mother.
(5) Sexual Contact:
Sexual contact is the main cause of transmitting the virus from an infected person to a non-infected person.
Infection Cycle of HIV
(Prevention and Treatment of AIDS)
- An important measure of prevention is avoiding direct contact with HIV.
- The sterile syringe should be used for intravenous drug injections.
- Use Sterile Surgical Instruments.
- Vaccines against HIV have been synthesized. Its experimental administration in humans started in early 2001 in South Africa.
- Use effective drugs and vaccines to control the disease.
- The best drug is azidothymidine or zidovudine commonly known as AZT. This drug was prepared in 1987.
- Another drug Ribavarrin is also used to control viral infection\diseases. It suppresses the AID virus.
- The summary drug is also effective to control the reproduction of the virus in the host body.
- Clean needles and sterile syringes should be used for injection.
- Before transfusion, blood should be properly checked and examined. it should be healthy and without infection.
- Avoid close contact with an infected person.
- Proper guidelines by education should be provided to the people. They should be aware of the disease.