Biology

Vaccination and Immunization with Uses and Misuses of Antibiotics

The process in which resistance against the diseases is developed in the body by the help of vaccination is called immunization. Vaccination is the use of antibiotic medicines to control many diseases. A vaccine is either used orally e.g. Polio vaccine or taken into the body by syringe e.g. Tetanus vaccine.

The procedure of vaccination is very effective and beneficial for human being because it helps to control many dangerous diseases such as measles, diphtheria. When large proportion of population is immune, then the disease spreads poorly throughout the population.

Edward Jenner (Founder of Vaccination): (1749 – 1823)Edward Jenner

He successfully vaccinated a boy against small pox in 1796. Jenner learned that a milkmaid, who milked a cow with cowpox disease, was not affected from small pox. He tested this hypothesis. He inoculated the young boy James Phipps with the cowpox causing material. Then he inoculated the small pox causing material. The boy did not get small pox. In this way, he discovered the method of vaccination.

Louis Pasteur:

Louis PasteurHe discovered the causes and prevention of many infectious diseases.

1. Vaccine against Chicken Cholera

He isolated the bacteria in 1880 that caused chicken cholera. He crew it in pure culture. Pasture used the germ theory of Koch to prove that the isolated bacteria caused the chicken cholera disease. He successfully performed experiments on chick in laboratory. He tried to prove his experiments publicly.

Pasture inoculated healthy chicken with his pure culture. He waited for some time so that the chicken developed cholera and died. But the chicken did not become sick and remained alive. Pasteur reviewed his steps of experiments. He found that he accidentally used the several week old cultures and did not use fresh culture.

Pasture had grown that fresh culture especially for the public demonstration. He discovered that some bacteria lose their virulence when they became old. But these attenuated or less virulent bacteria can stimulate the host chicken to produce antibodies. Antibody is substance that protects the host against the Infection due to attack of virulent organisms. In this way he discovered vaccine against chicken cholera.

2. Vaccine against AnthraxVaccine against Anthrax

Pasteur next applied his principle of inoculation on anthrax. He successfully used the attenuated (weak) anthrax bacteria for the prevention of anthrax. He called the attenuated cultures of bacteria as vaccine. The term vaccine is derived from Latin word Vacca, means “cow”. The immunization with attenuated culture of bacteria (vaccine) is called vaccination.

3. Vaccine against Hydrophobia or Rabies:Rabies

Pasteur also made vaccine against hydrophobia or rabies. Rabies is transmitted to people by the biting of rabid dog, cat and other animals.

Methods of Prevention & Treatment of Diseases

Following methods are used for the prevention and treatment of diseases:

  1. Immunization and vaccination.
  2. Antisepsis: It is procedure to eliminate or reduce the possibility of infection.
  3. Chemotherapy: Use of chemicals and antibiotics.
  4. Public health measures: These measures are water purification, sewage disposal and food preservation.

Use and Misuse of AntibioticsAntibiotics

Antibiotics are a Greek word: Anti means against and Bios means life. “These are the chemotherapeutic chemical substances which are used in the treatment of infectious diseases”. Antibiotics are the chemical substances, which are used to kill micro-organisms that cause various diseases. These are produced by certain micro-organisms and prevent the activity of other micro-organisms.

The first antibiotic is Penicillin which was isolated from Penicillium fungus in 1940. After that a great work has been done in this field and many antibiotics have been isolated or synthesized for the treatment of infectious diseases.

USE OF ANTIBIOTICS:

Some antibiotics have their effect against one bacterium and other antibiotics are effective against various bacteria i.e. they have widespread effect.

  1. Antibiotics are used to control the infection or disease, called by micro-organism.
  2. They are also used for vaccination and to improve immune system.
  3. Antibiotics are also used in agriculture to kill different organisms. These are also used in animal feeds to provide growth promoting substances.

MISUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS:vaccination

  1. By the extensive use of antibiotics more resistance is developed in pathogenic microorganisms, after that they cause more serious infection in the body.
  2. Antibiotics have many side effects. Other organs of the body may be damaged.
  3. Antibiotics may react with human metabolism and in severe cases death of person may occur.
  4. Some antibiotics cause allergy in the body, such as Penicillin.

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Precaution in the use of Antibiotics

  1. Use antibiotics as prescribed by the physicians.
  2. Take dose of antibiotics at regular intervals.
  3. Complete the course of treatment.

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