Mitochondria Structure and Chemical Composition with Formation and Functions

mitochondriaMitochondria are very important organelles. These are present only in Eukaryotic cells. They are involved in the manufacturing and supply of energy to the cell. So it may be called the powerhouse of the cell. The size and number of mitochondria are different in different cells.

Structure of Mitochondria

It may be vesicle, rod, or filament shaped. These are bound by two membranes. The outer membrane is smooth. The inner membrane forms many infoldings, called cristae. The inner chamber is called the mitochondrial matrix. The inner surface of cristae contains small knob-like structure, called F1 particles. These F2 particles are suspended inside the matrix.Structure of Mitochondria

Chemical Composition of Mitochondria

The mitochondrial membranes have similar composition and structure as other membranes. They are composed of lipids and proteins.

The mitochondrial matrix contains a large number of enzymes, coenzymes, organic and inorganic salts. It also contains DNA and ribosomes. So mitochondria can synthesize their own proteins.

Formation of new Mitochondria

These are self-replicating organelles. It means new mitochondria are formed by the division of the old mitochondria.


Many important metabolic processes take place in mitochondria. These are the Krebs cycle, aerobic respiration, fatty acid metabolism, etc. Energy is released from organic food during these metabolic processes. This energy is transferred to the energy-rich compound ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP provides energy to cells on-demand and ATP is broken to ADP. This ADP absorbs energy from mitochondria and again becomes ATP.

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