Golgi apparatus was discovered by Mr. Chemello Golgi, in 1898. It present only in eukaryotic cells.
Structure of Golgi apparatus
The apparatus consists of stacks of sacs. These sacs are flattened and membranous bound (surrounded by membrane). These stacked sacs are called cisternae. The cisternae with associated vesicles are called Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex. The Golgi complex is a complex system of interconnected tubules. These tubules are present around the central stacks.
Formation of Golgi apparatus
- The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) forms transport vesicles by budding.
- These vesicles fuse with cisternae. This fusion takes place toward the forming face of the Golgi complex. This forming face is the outer convex surface of the Golgi complex. It is present towards the SER.
- Vesicle is transferred towards maturing face. Maturing face is the inner concave surface of the Golgi complex. It is present towards the plasma membrane. This maturing face breaks up the cisternae from vesicles and forms secretary vesicles.
Functions of Golgi apparatus
Golgi complex performs following functions:
- Cell secretions: Golgi complex is concerned with cell secretions. For example, in mammals, the pancreas secretes granules. These granules contain enzymes that help in digestion. There are following steps in the process of cell secretions.
- The ribosomes synthesis protein part of the cell secretions.
- The endoplasmic reticulum transfers it to Golgi apparatus.
- Golgi complex converts the secretion to form granules.
- Finally granules are exported outside by the cell membrane.
- Transportation: Golgi complex transport the proteins or enzymes outside the cell.