Biology

Human Digestive System Parts and their Functions

What is the path that food takes through the digestive system in your body?

Human Digestive system parts are liver, glands, stomach, intestines, gallbladder and mouth etc. There are totally 6 main functions of Human Digestive System. These processes or functions are:

  • Ingestion
  • Motility
  • Secretion
  • Digestion
  • Absorption
  • ExcretionHuman Digestive System Parts

The Digestive System Parts are mentioned and explained below with the functions of all these parts. The Secretion is also mentioned in the table.

Organ

Function

Secretion

Oral Cavity

Teeth Mastication, Communication. None
Lips and Cheeks Manipulation of food, hold food in position between teeth, communication. Saliva from buccal glands (only mucous).
Tongue Manipulation of food, hold food in position between teeth, cleaning of the teeth and the taste. Some mucous and small amount of serous fluid.

Salivary Glands

Parotid Glands Secretion of saliva through ducts to superior and posterior part of oral cavity. Saliva with amylase.
Sub-Mandibular Glands Secretion of saliva in floor of oral cavity. Saliva with amylase and mucous.
Sublingual Glands Secretion of saliva in floor of oral cavity. Mucous saliva only.

Pharynx

Deglutition (movement of food from oral cavity to esophagus). Some mucous.

Esophagus

Movement of food by peristalsis from pharynx to stomach. Mucous.

Stomach

(Mechanical mixing of food, enzymatic digestion, storage, absorption)

Mucous cells Protection of stomach wall by mucous protection. Mucous
Parietal cells Decrease in stomach PH. Hydrochloric Acid
Zymogen cells Protein Digestion. Pepsinogen
Endocrine cells Regulation of secretion and motility. Gastrin

Accessory Gland

Liver Secretion of bile into duodenum. Bile
Gall Bladder Bile storage, absorb water and electrolytes into concentrate bile. None of its own secretion stores and concentrates bile.
pancreas Secretion of several digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ion into duodenum. Trypsin, chemotrysin, pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, bicarbonates.

Small Intestine (Read More)

Duodenal glands Protection Mucous
Globlet cells Protection Mucous
Absorptive cells Secretion of digestive enzyme and absorption of digestive materials. Enterokinase, amylase, peptidases, sucrose, maltase, lactase, lipase.
Endocrine cells Regulation of secretion and motility. Gastrin, secretin.

Large Intestine (Read More)

Globlet cell Absorption, storage and food movement, protection. Mucous.

 

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