Human Digestive System Parts and their Functions

What is the path that food takes through the digestive system in your body?

Human Digestive system parts are the liver, glands, stomach, intestines, gallbladder, mouth, etc. There are totally 6 main functions of the Human Digestive System. These processes or functions are:

  • Ingestion
  • Motility
  • Secretion
  • Digestion
  • Absorption
  • ExcretionHuman Digestive System Parts

The Digestive System Parts are mentioned and explained below with the functions of all these parts. The Secretion is also mentioned in the table.




Oral Cavity

TeethMastication, Communication.None
Lips and CheeksManipulation of food, holding food in position between teeth, communication.Saliva from buccal glands (only mucous).
TongueManipulation of food, holding food in position between teeth, cleaning of the teeth and the taste.Some mucous and a small amount of serous fluid.

Salivary Glands

Parotid GlandsSecretion of saliva through ducts to the superior and posterior parts of the oral cavity.Saliva with amylase.
Sub-Mandibular GlandsSecretion of saliva on the floor of the oral cavity.Saliva with amylase and mucous.
Sublingual GlandsSecretion of saliva in the floor of the oral cavity.Mucous saliva only.
PharynxDeglutition (movement of food from the oral cavity to the esophagus).Some mucous.
EsophagusMovement of food by peristalsis from the pharynx to the stomach.Mucous.


(Mechanical mixing of food, enzymatic digestion, storage, absorption)

Mucous cellsProtection of stomach wall by mucous protection.Mucous
Parietal cellsDecrease in stomach PH.Hydrochloric Acid
Zymogen cellsProtein Digestion.Pepsinogen
Endocrine cellsRegulation of secretion and motility.Gastrin

Accessory Gland

LiverSecretion of bile into the duodenum.Bile
Gall BladderBile storage, absorb water and electrolytes into concentrated bile.None of its own secretion stores and concentrates bile.
pancreasSecretion of several digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ions into the duodenum.Trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, and bicarbonates.

Small Intestine

Duodenal glandsProtectionMucous
Global cellsProtectionMucous
Absorptive cellsSecretion of digestive enzymes and absorption of digestive materials.Enterokinase, amylase, peptidases, sucrose, maltase, lactase, and lipase.
Endocrine cellsRegulation of secretion and motility.Gastrin, secretin.

Large Intestine

Global cellAbsorption, storage and food movement, protection.Mucous.


Related Articles


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button