Civil EngineeringSoil mechanics

12 Types of Soil: Classification and Characteristics

Types of soil are described in different ways. These are the most commonly used types we discussed below.

  • Different types with respect to the particles size
  • Different types with respect to the formation
    different types of soil

Types of Soil w.r.t to particles size

  1. Boulders
  2. Cobbles
  3. Gravels
  4. Sand
  5. Silt
  6. Clay
  7. Colloids

Boulders:

The pieces of particles obtained from rock break with destruction whose sizes of particles are more than 300 mm (per/feet) are called boulders.

Cobbles:

The pieces of particles obtained from rock break with destruction whose sizes of particles are less than 300 mm and more than 76.2 mm (per/feet) are called Cobbles.

Gravels:

The particles less than 76.2 mm while more than 4.75 mm per feet are Gravels.

Types of Gravels:

Coarse gravels: Those particles whose sizes are less than 76.2 mm but more than 20 mm are coarse gravels.

Fine gravel: Particles less than 20 mm but more than 4.75 mm are Fine Gravels.

Sand:

The particles obtained from the breaking of rock are called sand. Sizes of particles are less than 4.75 mm but more than 0.075 mm (per/feet).

Silt:

The clay whose particle`s size is less than 0.075 mm but more than 0.0005 mm called Silt.

Clay:

The soil whose particle`s size is less than 0.005 mm called Clay.

Colloids:

This is a clay of particle size less than 0.001 mm.

With respect to the formation

  1. Glacial
  2. Alluvial
  3. Loess
  4. Loam
  5. Pea

1. Glacial:

Glaciers deposits this soil. Glacial soils consist of sorted as well as assorted materials in different proportions.

2. Alluvial Soils:

Floods collect soils in plane areas, it is Alluvial. The layer of this soil is thicker.

3. Loess: 

This type consists of the same kind of materials. There is a lot of cohesion between the particles in this type. And the size of the particles is 0.001 mm from 0.005 mm, which is the size of silt and clay.

Loam:

This type of soil is a mixture of clay, silt, and Sand. Sometimes there exist the organic components with that kind of soil.

Peat:

Mold and water make this plant. It is very weak soil and cannot tolerate even the slightest weight.

References:

http:// study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-soil-definition-structure-types.html

https:// www.soils.org/discover-soils/soil-basics/soil-types

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