The cytoskeleton is an arrangement that helps cells to control their shape and internal organization. It also provides mechanical support that maintains cells to perform essential actions like division and movement. There is no single cytoskeletal element. Rather, various components perform together to form the cytoskeleton.
The cytoskeletal systems of various organisms are composed of related proteins. In eukaryotes, the cytoskeletal matrix is an effective structure having three main proteins. These proteins are capable of hasty growth or disassembly dependent on the cell’s requirements at a sure period of time.
The cell structure, function and aggressive cytoskeletonal behavior can be very contrasting, depending on creature and cell type. Even within single cell, the cytoskeleton can change through association with other proteins and the earlier history of the system.
Function of Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton expands throughout the cytoplasm of cell and control a number of essential actions.
- It supports and helps the cell to maintain its shape.
- A number of cellular organelles are held in a place with its help.
- Cytoskeleton assists in the development of vacuoles.
- It is not a static network, but is able to reassemble and disassemble its parts in order to set up internal and overall cell mobility.
- The cytoskeleton causes cell migration possible. As cell motility is needed for the construction of tissues and repair. Also in cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm) and in the development of daughter cells.
- It assists in the shipment of communication signals between many cells.
- It forms cellular appendage, for example; protrusions (cili and flagella) in some cells.
Structure of Cytoskeleton
All cells have a cytoskeleton. But, normally the eukaryotic cells is what is meant when considering the cytoskeleton. Eukaryotic cells are complicated cells. They have a nucleus and organelles. Protists, fungi, Animals and Plants have eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cells are less complicated with no truthful nucleus or organelles excepting ribosomes. And, they are found in the single-celled organisms like archaea and bacteria. The cytoskeleton of prokaryotic cells was basically thought not to exist; it was not identified before 1990s.
The eukaryotic cytoskeleton comprises of three different types of filaments. These filaments are expanded chains of proteins: microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments.
Cytoskeletonal Chemical Composition
Types of Cytoskeletal Fibers
There are three types of fibers, present in them.
Microtubules are long, unbranched and slender structure. They are composed of protein tubulin. Microtubules perform following functions.
- They are involved in the formation and degeneration of spindles during mitosis.
- Several cell organelles are derived from microtubules. These organelles are cilia, flagella, basal bodies and centrioles.
These are comparatively more slender. They have cylindrical shape. They are made up of contractile protein actin. Microfilaments perform the following functions:
- They are linked to the inner face of plasma membrane.
- They are involved in the internal cell motions.
- The cyclosis and amoeboid movements take place by microfilaments.
3. Intermediate Filaments
- Intermediate Filaments play a role in the determination and maintenance of cell shape.
- They are involved in the integration of cell compartments.