The cytoskeleton is an arrangement that helps cells to control their shape and internal organization. It also provides mechanical support that maintains cells to perform essential actions like division and movement. There is no single cytoskeletal element. Rather, various components perform together to form the cytoskeleton.
The cytoskeletal systems of various organisms are composed of related proteins. In eukaryotes, the cytoskeletal matrix is an effective structure having three main proteins. These proteins are capable of hasty growth or disassembly dependent on the cell’s requirements at a sure period of time.
The cell structure, function, and aggressive cytoskeletal behavior can be very contrasting, depending on the creature and cell type. Even within a single cell, the cytoskeleton can change through association with other proteins and the earlier history of the system.
Function of Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton expands throughout the cytoplasm of the cell and controls a number of essential actions.
- It supports and helps the cell to maintain its shape.
- A number of cellular organelles are held in a place with its help.
- Cytoskeleton assists in the development of vacuoles.
- It is not a static network but is able to reassemble and disassemble its parts in order to set up internal and overall cell mobility.
- The cytoskeleton causes cell migration possible. As cell motility is needed for the construction of tissues and repair. Also in cytokinesis (a division of the cytoplasm) and in the development of daughter cells.
- It assists in the shipment of communication signals between many cells.
- It forms cellular appendage, for example; protrusions (cilia and flagella) in some cells.
Structure of Cytoskeleton
All cells have a cytoskeleton. But, normally the eukaryotic cells are what is meant when considering the cytoskeleton. Eukaryotic cells are complicated cells. They have a nucleus and organelles. Protists, fungi, Animals, and Plants have eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cells are less complicated with no truthful nucleus or organelles excepting ribosomes. And, they are found in the single-celled organisms like archaea and bacteria. The cytoskeleton of prokaryotic cells was basically thought not to exist; it was not identified before the 1990s.
The eukaryotic cytoskeleton comprises of three different types of filaments. These filaments are expanded chains of proteins: microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.
Cytoskeleton Chemical Composition
The main proteins present in the cytoskeleton are tubulin (in-microtubules), actin, myosin, tropomyosin, and other proteins found in muscles.
Types of Cytoskeletal Fibers
There are three types of fibers, present in them.
Microtubules are long, unbranched, and slender structures. They are composed of the protein tubulin. Microtubules perform the following functions.
- They are involved in the formation and degeneration of spindles during mitosis.
- Several cell organelles are derived from microtubules. These organelles are cilia, flagella, basal bodies and centrioles.
These are comparatively more slender. They have cylindrical shapes. They are made up of contractile protein actin. Microfilaments perform the following functions:
- They are linked to the inner face of the plasma membrane.
- They are involved in the internal cell motions.
- The cyclosis and amoeboid movements take place by microfilaments.
3. Intermediate Filaments
They have a diameter in between microtubules and microfilaments. They perform the following functions:
- Intermediate Filaments play a role in the determination and maintenance of cell shape.
- They are involved in the integration of cell compartments.