Anemia: Low Hemoglobin Causes | Gas Exchange | Biology

Low Hemoglobin (Anemia) Causes are very important. There are four major factors which affect the capacity of hemoglobin to combine with oxygen:

    • Carbon Dioxide CO2: The oxygen pressure decreases with the increase of pressure of carbon dioxide. Similarly, the capacity of the hemoglobin decreases to hold the oxygen. So, the hemoglobin releases more oxygen from blood into the tissues. CO2 is much more important regulator of normal ventilation (breathing) than oxygen.
    • Temperature: The temperature rises with the increase of muscular activity. The rise in temperature decreases the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. So, hemoglobin releases more oxygen in the tissues.
    • pH of Blood: The pH of blood also influences the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. The amount of oxygen to bind with hemoglobin decreases with the decrease in pH. The decrease in pH increases the hydrogen ion (H+) in the blood.

These hydrogen ions combine with the protein part of the hemoglobin molecules. So, they decrease the ability of hemoglobin to bind with the oxygen. On the other hand, the increase in blood pH increases the ability or hemoglobin to bind with oxygen.

    • Role of Oxygen O2 concentration: It has a great importance in Anemia. Normally, oxygen concentration does not play regulatory role in ventilation. But under certain conditions like shock the partial pressure of oxygen is reduced in aterial blood. Now, it plays an important stimulatory role in ventilation.

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