Water pollution is very prominent and widespread as a result of urban and the industrial activity. Sewage waste from cities and industrial waste are the many factors of the water pollution. Many other kinds of wastes which pollute water are from agricultural lands which contain pesticides, waste food, fertilizers and animal excreta.
Wastes from power plants contain radioactive materials, hot water, and minerals which also pollute the water. Soaps, detergents, human excreta, animal faces, wastes from slaughter-houses, disease-causing micro-organism from patients and chemicals, etc. are induced in sewage washes from cities.
Acids, pesticides, plastics, inorganic salts, bases, toxic organic wastes and wastes from food, fertilizer, and poultry industries are also the main cause of water pollution.
Diseases by Polluted water
Bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and worms are carried in polluted water. The diseases caused by them are as under:
- Bacteria: Typhoid, cholera, dysentery, enteritis.
- Viruses: Hepatitis, polio, viral enteritis.
- Protozoa: Amoebic dysentery, diarrhea.
- Parasitic Worms: A few common diseases are mentioned here:
Intestinal diseases, such as cholera, they may cause dangerous dehydration. Diarrhea may be caused by viruses, bacteria or parasites.
Dysentery is an intestinal disease which is typically caused by certain bacteria or parasites. It is characterized by severe diarrhea that may be accompanied by blood or mucus.
Cholera is an acute infection caused by the bacteria Vibrios cholera, which may be found in water contaminated by the human feces. Cholera causes severe diarrhea and can be fatal.
Waterborne micro-organism (protozoa) that causes gastrointestinal illness (cryptosporidiosis) including diarrhea and vomiting. These tiny pathogens are found in surface water sources like reservoirs, lakes, and rivers.
Fluorosis is a disease caused by the consumption of excess fluoride. Fluorosis can cause bones and teeth damage.
It is liver inflammation commonly caused by one of five viruses called hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. Hepatitis A and E can be transmitted by contaminated water.
Hookworm is a parasitic worm that infects the small intestine. Severe cases can result in anemia and stunted growth in children. Hookworm larvae enter the body through the skin, often via the feet. Spread by poor sanitary conditions, hookworms infect about one billion people worldwide per annum.
Jaundice is caused by the excess of bile pigments in the blood. Liver ceases to function and eyes turn yellow. Patients feel weakness and fatigue.
A dangerous bacterial disease often spread by contaminated water or by food prepared with contaminated water.
Methods to control water pollution
Different methods can be used to control water pollution. The whole sewage waste should be dumped after any treatment. Sewage treatment plants should be installed in cities, especially in big cities. The sewage waste from the cities go to drains and ultimately ends up in rivers. It must be avoided to save water from pollution.
Wastes from industrial areas add toxic metals like chromium from tanneries to natural waters. The wastes from the industrial areas should be treated before reaching natural water. Pesticides industries and fertilizer industries release toxic wastes which must be treated chemically.
New industries are required to build up at long distances away from the cities and rivers. Natural dumping in oceans should be banned. Modern scientific methods should be used in the agriculture.