This, also known as the plant kingdom , is one of the five kingdoms established many decades ago. Although it seems a simple group to study and classify, the truth is that their species have the same or greater evolutionary history than that of the others.
The first plants to exist, probably more than a billion years ago, were some species of algae. This kingdom includes terrestrial and aquatic plants, which number about 390,000 species.
Classification of the plant kingdom
The classification of plants is developed through taxonomy, that is why today we can name them in such a way as to make groups:
- Glaucophytes (Glaucophyta)
- Rhodophyta: cyanidiophytes and red algae.
- Green plants (Viridiplantae): green algae (chlorophytes and carophytes), terrestrial plants (Bryophytes: liverworts, mosses and anthocera), vascular plants: pteridophytes (club mosses , horsetails and ferns), seed plants (Spermatophyta): gymnosperms (cycads, ginkgo) , conifers and gnetals) and flowering plants or angiosperms (monocots and dicots).
- Plants without flowers: thalophytes, bryophytes and pteridophytes.
- Flowering plants: gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Importance of the kingdom plantae
Like all living things on Earth, plants play an important role in the entire natural system that maintains the planet as we know it. These are the main characteristics of plants that make this kingdom a very important one.
- Plants provide us with oxygen after their photosynthesis process.
- They produce their own substances that keep them alive. As well as fruits and substances that serve as food for other organisms.
- Plants have multiple medicinal properties that humans have used over the centuries to cure diseases .
- They adapt to the environments, that is why some species are born easily in almost all types of soil.
- In addition to fruits and oxygen, with plants we can obtain pigment, wood, spices and other resources that are produced indirectly from a plant.
xamples of plants of the kingdom plantae according to their type
- Thalophytes (algae): Ulva lactuca, Asterella ludwigii.
- Bryophytes: Polytrichum commune, Bryum argenteum .
- Pteridophytes: Lycopodium clavatum, Pteridium aquilinum, Equisetum arvense.
- Gymnosperms: Taxus baccata, Pinus albia, Ginkgo biloba .
- Angiosperms: Prunus serrulata (cherry), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Aloe barbadensis (aloe vera).
Examples of plants with their common names
- Green stick
- ash tree
- Fan palm
- Coconut tree