We explain that what are examples of Ionic Bonding? In chemistry, the ionic bond is one in which two atoms are united thanks to the electrostatic forces produced by their valence electrons, located in their last shells. For an ionic bond to form, there needs to be a negative charge and a positive charge . These will be neutralized to form the stable molecule of an ionic compound. The substances that have a positive charge are metals , and those with a negative charge are non-metals . examples of Ionic Bonding
This bond is called “ionic” because the particles that form it have a charge and that is why they are called ions . The atom of a metal becomes an ion by having its valence electrons exposed, from 1 to 4. This means that they can deliver them to another ion that can receive them. By shedding 1 to 4 negative charges, metals take valences from +1 to +4 . This gives them the tendency to form these bonds with non-metals.
The atom of a nonmetal becomes an ion by having its valence electrons exposed, from 5 to 7. This means that they can receive 1 to 3 electrons from another ion that can deliver them. Being able to accept 1 to 3 electrons to reach the eight that make them stable, they take on a valence or oxidation state of between –1 and –3 . Thus, a metal and a nonmetal are going to join in the right number of ions to compensate their valences until they all have eight electrons there. examples of Ionic Bonding
Radicals in ionic bonds examples of Ionic Bonding
Now, not only metals and nonmetals have positive and negative charges to join in ionic bonds. There are also groups of atoms called radicals (or ions, as such) that among all their components have a global charge, capable of attracting another charge of the opposite sign. The main example of a positive radical is ammonium NH 4 + , formed by a nitrogen atom and four hydrogen atoms, remaining with a positive charge.
The negative radicals are the most abundant, since there are many different combinations that can be formed with non – metals and oxygen atoms, for example. This causes them to have such varied oxidation states. The most important are:
- nitrate NO 3 –
- sulfate SO 4 -2
- bicarbonate HCO 3 –
- carbonate CO 3 -2
- phosphate PO 4 -3
Characteristics of ionic bonds
The characteristics of ionic bonds are related to the elements that intervene in them, the union process and its result.
- They occur between elements metals (groups I and II) and nonmetals (groups VI and VII) of the periodic table.
- The atoms that form them must have electronegativity differences from each other.
- They are the product of a transfer of electrons.
- Its atoms are transformed into cations and anions after the transfer of electrons, which results in the bond.
- They are strong, but rigid bonds, due to the attraction between negative and positive charges. examples of Ionic Bonding
Properties of an ionic bond examples of Ionic Bonding
Compounds formed by ionic bonds present a series of properties as a result of the strong attraction between charges that occurs in said bonds, determining their chemical behavior. Namely.
- They are neutral in the solid state: when they are in the solid state, the electrical charge of the ionic bonds is neutral.
- They tend to crystallize: due to the three-dimensional structure of an ionic bond, they favor brittle crystallized networks.
- High boiling and melting points (300º C to 1000º C): since there is a very powerful force of attraction between the ions, they must be subjected to high melting or boiling points to modify their state.
- Solid at temperatures between 20º C and 30º C: as a consequence of the above, ionic bonds are usually solid at room temperature.
- Good Conductors of Electricity: Ionic bonds are good conductors of electricity as long as they are dissolved in water.
How an ionic bond is formed?
When a metal and a non-metal element come together, they seek electronic stability. The metal will be willing to donate a valence electron from its outermost shell, while the nonmetal will be willing to receive said electron from its outermost shell.
Once the metal element transfers its electron, it acquires a positive charge, that is, it becomes a cation (positive ion). For its part, the nonmetal acquires a negative charge upon receiving the electron and thus becomes an anion (negative ion).
The positive and negative charges of the ions immediately generate an attractive force that binds them together. Thus, an ionic bond is consolidated.
For example , sodium (Na) has one valence electron in the last electronic shell, while chlorine (Cl) has seven. When sodium and chlorine come together, sodium gives up its electron to chlorine. This then adds 8 valence electrons.
When sodium loses its electron, it gains a positive charge and becomes a cation. When chlorine gains an electron, it turns negative and becomes an anion. examples of Ionic Bonding
Since positive and negative charges attract each other, both ions come together to form an ionic bond. This particular compound, formed from ionic bonds, is sodium chloride (NaCl), the chemical name for table salt.
Difference between ionic bonds and covalent bonds
The most important difference between ionic and covalent bonds is that ionic bonds transfer an electron from one atom to the other. In contrast, in covalent bonds the atoms share a pair of electrons. examples of Ionic Bonding
Ionic bonds normally occur between metal and nonmetal elements. Covalent bonds are only established between nonmetal elements. examples of Ionic Bonding
Another difference lies in the type of compounds that generate both bonds. Most of the inorganic compounds are made up of ionic bonds. Organic compounds, for their part, are always formed with covalent bonds. examples of Ionic Bonding
Examples of ionic bonds examples of Ionic Bonding
- Potassium bromide (KBr) , component of homeopathic medicines, sedatives, anticonvulsant, diuretic, etc.
- Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), medical uses such as antacid, digestive, among others.
- Ammonium Chloride (NH 4 Cl), fertilizer base.
- Magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ), among whose properties it is to be antifreeze.
- Manganese Chloride (MnCl 2 ), used in the production of paints, varnishes, disinfectants, etc.
- Sodium chloride (NaCl), common table salt.
- Potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ), used in pigment manufacturing, leather treatment, metal treatment, etc.
- Lithium fluoride (LiF), used in the manufacture of glasses, crystals, enamels and ceramics.
- Disodium phosphate (Na 2 HPO 4 ), widely used as a stabilizer in meat products.
- Potassium hydroxide (KOH), is used in soaps, detergents, fertilizers, etc.
- Zinc hydroxide (Zn (OH) 2 ), widely used for skin treatments, such as creams and bronzers.
- Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), useful in disinfecting water.
- Potassium iodide (KI), used as the base of iodized salt
- Calcium nitrate (Ca (NO 3 ) 2 ), applied in wastewater treatment.
- Silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ), allows to detect chloride in other solutions. It serves as a cauterizer for various injuries.
- Calcium oxide (CaO), cal.
- Iron oxide II (FeO), base for cosmetic pigments and body dyes.
- Magnesium oxide (MgO), laxative and antacid commonly known as milk of magnesia.
- Copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ), serves as a fungicide, pool cleaner and component of animal feed.
- Potassium sulfate (K 2 SO 4 ), has applications as a fertilizer and is a component of some construction materials.
More examples of ionic bonds examples of Ionic Bonding
- NaF sodium fluoride
- NaCl sodium chloride
- Sodium bromide NaBr
- Sodium Iodide NaI
- KF Potassium Fluoride
- Potassium Chloride KCl
- Potassium Bromide KBr
- Potassium Iodide KI
- Magnesium Fluoride MgF2
- Magnesium Chloride MgCl2
- Magnesium Bromide MgBr2
- Magnesium Iodide MgI2
- CaF2 calcium fluoride
- Calcium chloride CaCl2
- CaBr2 calcium bromide
- Calcium Iodide CaI2
- Aluminum Chloride AlCl3
- Aluminum bromide AlBr3
- Aluminum Iodide AlI3
- Nitric acid HNO3
- NaNO3 sodium nitrate
- Potassium nitrate KNO3
- Magnesium Nitrate Mg (NO3) 2
- Calcium nitrate Ca (NO3) 2
- Aluminum nitrate Al (NO3) 3
- Sulfuric acid H2SO4
- Na2SO4 sodium sulfate
- Potassium sulfate K2SO4
- Magnesium Sulfate MgSO4
- Calcium sulfate CaSO4
- Aluminum sulfate Al2 (SO4) 3
- NaHCO3 sodium bicarbonate
- KHCO3 Potassium Bicarbonate
- Magnesium Bicarbonate Mg (HCO3) 2
- Calcium bicarbonate Ca (HCO3) 2
- Aluminum bicarbonate Al (HCO3) 3
- Sodium carbonate Na2CO3
- Potassium carbonate K2CO3
- Magnesium carbonate MgCO3
- Calcium carbonate CaCO3
- Aluminum carbonate Al2 (CO3) 3
- Na3PO4 sodium phosphate
- Potassium phosphate K3PO4
- Magnesium phosphate Mg3 (PO4) 2
- Calcium phosphate Ca3 (PO4) 2
- Aluminum Phosphate AlPO4
- NaClO sodium hypochlorite
- Potassium Hypochlorite KClO
- Magnesium Hypochlorite Mg (ClO) 2
- Calcium hypochlorite Ca (ClO) 2