Chemistry

Examples of Hydroxides

We explain that what are examples of hydroxides with uses? The hydroxides are chemical compounds which are formed by a metal and the hydroxyl ion (OH  ). They are formed when metal combines with water, and their atoms begin to react with the molecules of this. The metallic element has positive valence , with one or more electrons available to deliver. In the reaction, water separates into its hydrogen (H + ) and hydroxyl (OH  ) ions, the latter being free to bind to metal ions. examples of hydroxides with uses

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The chemical equation for the formation of a hydroxide is:

M + H 2 O -> M-OH + H 2

Metal + Water -> Hydroxide + Hydrogen

(depending on the metal involved, the equation will be balanced)

Hydrogen ions (H + ) bind together (one with valence +1 and the other takes valence –1) to form hydrogen gas (H 2 ), which is released into the atmosphere during the reaction. When the formation of a hydroxide occurs in an aqueous solution , that is, with the metal dissolved in water, this mixture acquires a pH greater than 7, ranging from 8 to 14, depending on the hydroxide that is formed, and will take on some of the properties of this new substance. examples of hydroxides with uses

Hydroxides can also be formed from metal oxides , also called basic oxides for this reason . This is the case of calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2 , known as hydrated lime and originating from calcium oxide CaO. By adding water to calcium oxide CaO, the hydroxyls rearrange with the oxygen in it, remaining in the Ca (OH) 2 molecule . examples of hydroxides with uses

CaO + H 2 O -> Ca (OH) 2

Hydroxides in aqueous solutions

In an aqueous solution, the hydroxide molecules will be stable and at the same time separating into their metal (M + ) and hydroxyl (OH  ) ions , giving a constant state of alkalinity . It is the concentration of the hydroxyl ions that determines the pH of the solution, and also its reactivity. Hydroxides react with all types of acids, which are hydracids, oxyacids and organic acids; and they form as products a salt, an oxisal or an organic salt, respectively. examples of hydroxides with uses

The reaction between a hydroxide and any acid is called a neutralization reaction , since acids lead to a pH lower than 7 (from 1 to 6). If both species, hydroxide and acid, are put in contact in stoichiometric amounts (chemically exact), they will counteract until reaching a pH of 7, reaching equilibrium there. If one of the two predominates, then the pH will slope like this: more acidic results in pH 1–6; more hydroxide results in pH 8-14.

The general equation for a neutralization reaction is:

Hydroxide + Acid -> Salt + Water

Characteristics examples of hydroxides with uses

  • They are slippery and bitter like soap.
  • They are very corrosive like sodium hydroxide or caustic soda and potassium hydroxide or caustic potash.
  • By adding colorless phenolphthalein to the alkaline solution, the alkaline solution turns fuchsia in color and the red litmus paper turns blue.
  • They are used to make soaps like sodium hydroxide (NaOH). It is also used as drain cleaners, because when it reacts with water, it generates heat, melting and saponifying fats.
  • Others are used in the medical field such as magnesium hydroxide (MgOH) 2 or milk of magnesia , which acts as an antacid like aluminum hydroxide Al (OH).

Nomenclaturess

To name the hydroxides, the three nomenclatures studied in the basic oxides are used: Traditional, stock and systematic, as we can see in the following table of examples of hydroxides , which I propose below:

Elements Oxidation numbers Chemical formula Traditional nomenclature Stock Nomenclature Systematic nomenclature
Sodium (Na)        1 + NaOH Sodium hydroxide or caustic soda Sodium hydroxide (I) Sodium hydroxide
Potassium (K)         1 + KOH Potassium hydroxide or caustic potash Potassium (I) hydroxide Potassium hydroxide
Calcium (Ca)          2 + Ca (OH) 2 Calcium hydroxide or slaked lime Calcium (II) hydroxide Calcium dihydroxide
Nickel (Ni) + Ni (OH) 2 Nickel hydroxide Nickel (II) hydroxide Nickel dihydroxide
+ Ni (OH) 3 Nickel hydroxide Nickel (III) hydroxide Nickel Trihydroxide
Aluminum (Al) + Al (OH) 3 Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum (III) hydroxide Aluminum trihydroxide
Lead (Pb) + Pb (OH) 2 Plumb hydroxide Lead (II) hydroxide Lead dihydroxide
+ Pb (OH) 4 Lead hydroxide Lead (IV) hydroxide Lead tetrahydroxide
Iron (Fe) + Fe (OH) 2 Ferrous hydroxide Iron (II) hydroxide Iron dihydroxide
+ Fe (OH) 3 Ferric hydroxide Iron (III) hydroxide Iron trihydroxide
  Gold (Au) + AuOH Aurous hydroxide Gold (I) hydroxide Gold hydroxide
+ Au (OH) 3 Auric hydroxide Gold (III) hydroxide Gold trihydroxide
Silver (Ag) + AgOH Silver hydroxide Silver (I) hydroxide Silver hydroxide.
Zinc (Zn) + Zn (OH) 2 Zinc hydroxide Zinc (II) hydroxide Zinc Hydroxide.
Copper (cu) + CuOH Cuprous hydroxide Copper (I) hydroxide Copper hydroxide
+ Cu (OH) 2 Cupric hydroxide Copper (II) hydroxide Copper dihydroxide
Magnesium (Ca)       2 + Mg (OH) 2 Magnesium hydroxide or milk of magnesia. Magnesium (II) hydroxide Magnesium dihydroxide.

Uses of hydroxides

Hydroxides are compounds with great utility in the chemical industry, medicinally and in the domestic sphere. They are used for the following purposes:

  • Neutralize or alkalize acidic streams and spills.
  • Make soaps with animal fats as raw material.
  • Produce insecticides
  • Make compost or fertilizers
  • Make paper pulp
  • Milk of magnesia, which is magnesium hydroxide Mg (OH) 2 , combines with aluminum hydroxide Al (OH) 3 to create a powerful antacid for upset stomachs like heartburn.
  • Dissolve the fats that are trapped on the stove

40 examples of hydroxides

  1. Ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH , an exception in the sense that ammonium is not a metal, but a positive ion made up of non-metals. It is used to extract pigments, as a coolant, as an ingredient in cleaning products, in hair dyes, and for pH control.
  2. Lithium hydroxide LiOH , is used to extract carbon dioxide (product of respiration) in closed rooms such as submarines, ships and space stations.
  3. NaOH sodium hydroxide , also called caustic soda.
  4. Potassium hydroxide KOH or caustic potash, used for saponification to create soap.
  5. Rubidium Hydroxide RbOH
  6. Cesium hydroxide CsOH , whose formation is very fast and aggressive.
  7. Magnesium Hydroxide Mg (OH) 2 , known as Milk of Magnesia.
  8. Calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2 , also called hydrated lime.
  9. Strontium hydroxide Sr (OH) 2 is used in industry as a stabilizer for plastics, as well as for the refining processes of beet sugar.
  10. Barium hydroxide Ba (OH) 2 , which is used in chemical processes within the sugar industry, manufacture of paints, pesticides and other chemical products.
  11. Boron hydroxide B (OH) 3
  12. Aluminum hydroxide Al (OH) 3
  13. Gallium hydroxide Ga (OH) 3
  14. Indium hydroxide In (OH) 3
  15. Thallium hydroxide Tl (OH) 3
  16. Cuprous hydroxide CuOH
  17. Cupric hydroxide Cu (OH) 2
  18. Silver hydroxide AgOH is a fine powder with a brown or black color. It is usually used in silver oxide batteries, as well as to increase oxidation in chemical preparations, as an oxidizing agent.
  19. Ferrous hydroxide Fe (OH) 2
  20. Ferric hydroxide Fe (OH) 3
  21. Hydroxide aurous AUOH used to color ceramics.
  22. Auric hydroxide Au (OH) 3
  23. Ni (OH) 2 nickel hydroxide
  24. Ni (OH) 3 nickel hydroxide
  25. Plumbous hydroxide Pb (OH) 2
  26. Lead hydroxide Pb (OH) 4
  27. Cadmium hydroxide Cd (OH) 2
  28. Cobaltous hydroxide Co (OH) 2
  29. Cobalt hydroxide Co (OH) 3
  30. Chromium II hydroxide Cr (OH) 2
  31. Chromium III hydroxide Cr (OH) 3
  32. Stannous hydroxide Sn (OH) 2
  33. Stannic hydroxide Sn (OH) 4
  34. Manganous hydroxide Mn (OH) 2
  35. Manganic hydroxide Mn (OH) 3
  36. Mercurous hydroxide HgOH
  37. Mercuric hydroxide Hg (OH) 2
  38. Zinc hydroxide Zn (OH) 2
  39. Titanium Hydroxide Ti (OH) 4
  40. Scandium hydroxide Sc (OH) 2

 

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