The filtration proves to be a method that allows separating substances solid of liquids or gases , by employing a medium permeable (paper or fabric) capable of retaining the solid substance. The paper or cloth filter only allows liquids to pass through .
The filtration then separates the mixture that occurs between water and the solid. This mixture is passed through a porous filter of paper or cloth so that only the water passes and retains the solid of that mixture. Also filtration is observed between solid mixtures.
The filtration method is widely used in everyday life. From filtering drinking water to filtering certain foods for human use.
Examples of filtration methods
There is no doubt that in the progress of everyday life and technology, filtration methods have been used with greater force due to environmental pollution . This includes, for example, wastewater treatment.
There are many filter modes depending on the utility for which they were created. Among them:
- Ordinary filtering . A process through the use of membranes or sieves and whose pores are equal to or greater than one millimeter in size. Examples : strain coffee, strain pasta, tinajero (stone filter) of water; preparation of teas or infusions, oil filter …
- Microfiltration . Filtration with the use of sieves whose pores are between 0.1 and 10 microns. Examples : separation of water and oil, clarification of wine and beer, separation of bacteria in water
- Ultrafiltration . Type of membrane filtration that allows the retention, reduction and elimination of solid waste suspended in water. Examples : clarification of fruit juices, dialysis and other milk procedures, water purification …
- Sifting . It is a method that allows solids to be separated. It is also called screening. Examples : sifting flour, separating wheat.
- Nanofiltration . A fluid is passed through a semi-permeable membrane under pressure until the separation of molecules occurs . Examples : pesticide removal from water, heavy metal removal from wastewater, recycling of wastewater from dry cleaners or food factories.
- Osmosis . It is a water filtration system that works through pressure . With the impulse of the pressure the water is directed to a semi-permeable membrane. It is also called reverse osmosis . Examples : in everyday life this type of filtration is used when pasta or rice is boiled, legumes are soaked in water …