The distillation is a process through which it is possible the separation of two substances forming a liquid. This process uses vaporization and condensation to achieve this separation.
Distillation is achieved thanks to the fact that the substances to be separated usually have different boiling points , in addition, it must be considered that it is possible to determine the liquefied gases, solids and liquids that make up the liquid that goes through this physical process.
There are three ways to carry out the distillation: simple, fractional and vacuum . The simple one is carried out in liquids whose contained substances have the same different boiling points. The fractional is the opposite of the simple one, that is, they have similar boiling points and in a vacuum it refers to substances with lower boiling points than normal.
15 Examples of Distillation
- Oil refining
- The distillation of water for purification
- Thermolysis of mineral salts
- Seawater desalination
- Alcohol distillation
- To obtain sugars
- Perfume production
- The purification of ethanol
- Coal processing
- The alembic
- Obtaining distilled water
- Obtaining oils
- Obtaining glycerin
- Catalytic cracking
- In obtaining light vacuum gas oil.
Types of Distillation
Knowing this, we go on to mention the best known types of distillation that exist:
- Simple distillation: it is carried out whenever one of the substances is volatile within the mixture, it can also occur when there is more than one but the boiling point of the liquid that has greater volatility than the other substances is equal to or greater than 80 ° C.
- Fractional distillation: for this type, use is made of what is known as a fractionation column, which by means of plates allows the evaporation and condensation process, which results in a higher concentration.
- Vacuum distillation: as its name indicates, vacuum pressure is used, which allows the distillation of the substances that make up a liquid to be done but at a point lower than its usual boiling point.
- Drag distillation: it is used mainly to obtain a total isolation or purification of substances which have a high boiling point, for this, direct injection of water vapor is used to achieve the separation of substances within a mixture.
- Dry distillation: is one in which the heating of solids is used without the need for liquids, this generates gases that later condense in another container or container.