When matter has only one type of atoms , then it is a pure substance called a chemical element, which will behave identically in all its portions and combine in a specific way with other elements, forming chemical compounds. The latter, as new matter, have as their basic unit the molecule , a union of the elements.
Periodic table of the chemical elements
The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev consolidated in the 19th century the definitive register of chemical elements, a table organized by columns to indicate those with similar properties and which at the same time, in an advance from left to right, showed the atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus) in ascending order. This table, definitely called the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements , is the primary tool of every professional chemistry.
According to the type of matter that you study, chemistry is going to be classified into two main branches:
- Inorganic chemistry
- Organic chemistry
The inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies the mineral substances that make up the earth ‘s crust and seawater. These are very varied and can contain the atoms of any element in the periodic table. The chemical compounds that are described in it are very abundant and result from the numerous combinations of the elements.
The organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry studying substances are mainly constituted by chains of carbon atoms, supplemented with hydrogen and other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur. Many of these molecules also participate in biological processes, so biochemistry is derived from organic chemistry .
The variety of organic compounds is much greater than that of inorganic compounds, since the same carbon chains can be branched in infinite ways and that gives them different properties. Therefore, in addition to biochemistry, other more specific branches arise according to their purpose: pharmaceutical, food, industrial, petrochemical, etc.
10 chemistry examples
The main branches of chemistry are listed below, dedicated to studying in depth each of its aspects:
- Biochemistry: Studies the substances that participate in metabolism and all the reaction mechanisms that help biological organisms function.
- Physicochemistry: Study the physical phenomena involved in chemical reactions, at an atomic and macroscopic level.
- Analytic chemistry: Analyze samples of matter, subjecting it to reaction with certain reagents and, based on the results, understand its composition.
- Inorganic chemistry: It is the one that studies the mineral substances that make up the earth’s crust and sea water.
- Organic chemistry: It is the one that studies biological substances and those derived from oil.
- Industrial Chemistry: Study and put into practice inorganic and organic chemistry, to produce useful materials for humanity and benefit the economy.
- Macromolecular Chemistry: Study the preparation, characterization, properties and applications of macromolecules or polymers.
- Neurochemistry: It is the study of chemical reactions that occur within the brain under the influence of neurotransmitters.
- Petrochemical: It studies the processes for obtaining and the composition of oil, made up mostly of hydrocarbons.
- Pharmaceutical chemistry: It studies the organic compounds that are capable of intervening in biological processes in order to cure diseases and improve health. You put this knowledge to use to develop and improve these products.
20 examples of inorganic chemistry
- Neutralization of hydrochloric acid HCl with sodium hydroxide NaOH.
- Neutralization of hydrochloric acid HCl with potassium hydroxide KOH.
- Neutralization of hydrochloric acid HCl with magnesium hydroxide Mg (OH) 2 .
- Neutralization of hydrochloric acid HCl with calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2 .
- Neutralization of sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 with sodium hydroxide NaOH.
- Neutralization of sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 with potassium hydroxide KOH.
- Neutralization of sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 with magnesium hydroxide Mg (OH) 2 .
- Neutralization of sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 with calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2 .
- Neutralization of phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 with sodium hydroxide NaOH.
- Neutralization of phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 with potassium hydroxide KOH.
- Neutralization of phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 with magnesium hydroxide Mg (OH) 2 .
- Neutralization of phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 with calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2 .
- The formation of ammonia NH 3 from hydrogen H 2 and nitrogen N 2 .
- The formation of carbon dioxide CO 2 by reacting sodium bicarbonate NaHCO 3 with water H 2
- Neutralization of sulfurous acid H 3 SO 3 with sodium hydroxide NaOH.
- Neutralization of sulfurous acid H 3 SO 3 with potassium hydroxide KOH.
- Neutralization of sulfurous acid H 3 SO 3 with magnesium hydroxide Mg (OH) 2 .
- The neutralization of sulfurous acid H 3 SO 3 with calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2 .
- Neutralization of nitric acid HNO 3 with sodium hydroxide NaOH.
- Neutralization of nitric acid HNO 3 with potassium hydroxide KOH.
20 examples of organic chemistry
- The creation of artificial hormones
- The synthesis of amoxicillin
- The synthesis of ampicillin
- The synthesis of azlocillin
- Bacampicillin synthesis
- The synthesis of carbenicillin
- The synthesis of cloxacillin
- The synthesis of dicloxacillin
- The synthesis of carboxypenicillins
- The synthesis of methicillin
- The synthesis of mezlocillin
- The synthesis of nafcillin
- The synthesis of oxacillin
- The synthesis of penicillin
- The synthesis of piperacillin
- The synthesis of ticarcillin
- The synthesis of ureidopenicillins
- Laboratory synthesis of enzymes
- The synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid
- The synthesis of omeprazole
50 examples of chemical compounds
- The synthesis of acetic acid whose formula is CH3COOH
- The synthesis of carbonic acid whose formula is H2CO3
- The synthesis of hydrochloric acid whose formula is HCl
- The synthesis of phosphoric acid whose formula is H3PO4
- The synthesis of nitric acid whose formula is HNO3
- The synthesis of hydrogen sulfide whose formula is H2S
- The synthesis of sulfuric acid whose formula is H2SO4
- The synthesis of Water whose formula is H2O
- The synthesis of Alane whose formula is AlH3
- The synthesis of Ammonium whose formula is NH3
- The synthesis of Benzene whose formula is C6H6
- The synthesis of Borano whose formula is BH3
- The synthesis of Barium Chloride Bromide whose formula is BaBrCl
- The synthesis of calcium carbonate whose formula is CaCO3
- Lithium carbonate whose formula is Li2CO3
- Magnesium carbonate whose formula is MgCO3
- Calcium chloride whose formula is CaCl2
- Palladium chloride whose formula is PdCl2
- Sodium chloride whose formula is NaCl
- Zinc chloride whose formula is ZnCl2
- Ferric chloride whose formula is FeCl3
- Barium chromate whose formula is BaCrO4
- Potassium chromate whose formula is KCrO4
- Potassium dichromate whose formula is K2Cr2O7
- Carbon dioxide whose formula is CO2
- Phosphine whose formula is PH3
- Ammonium hydroxide whose formula is NH4OH
- Calcium hydroxide whose formula is Ca (OH) 2
- Magnesium hydroxide whose formula is Mg (OH) 2
- Potassium hydroxide whose formula is KOH
- Sodium hydroxide whose formula is NaOH
- Ferric hydroxide whose formula is Fe (OH) 3
- Sodium hypochlorite whose formula is NaClO
- Lead iodide whose formula is PbI2
- Methane whose formula is CH4
- Cupric nitrate whose formula is Cu (NO3) 2
- Silver nitrate whose formula is AgNO3
- Aluminum nitride whose formula is AlN
- Potassium permanganate whose formula is KMnO4
- Hydrogen peroxide whose formula is H2O2
- Cupric sulfate whose formula is CuSO4
- Calcium sulfate whose formula is CaSO4
- Cobalt sulfate whose formula is CoSO4
- Magnesium sulfate whose formula is MgSO4
- Ferric sulfate whose formula is Fe2 (SO4) 3
- Ferrous sulfate whose formula is FeSO4
- Aluminum sulfite whose formula is Al2 (SO3) 3
- Carbon sulfide whose formula is CS2
- Silver sulfide whose formula is Ag2S
- Carbon tetrachloride whose formula is CCl4