Chemistry

Examples of Bases

We explain the examples of bases in chemistry. In chemistry, bases are substances that, when dissolved in water , dissociate into their ions and increase the pH , in a range between 8 and 14. Its nature is opposite to that of acids, which reduce it below the neutral value 7 Its behavior can be defined according to the three Acid-Base theories, formulated by Svante Arrhenius, Brönsted and Lowry, and Lewis. Each theory focuses on a chemical phenomenon that occurs at the bases and explains them in detail.examples of bases in chemistry

 

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Bases according to Arrhenius

The Arrhenius Theory explains bases as substances that, when dissolved in water, to form an aqueous solution, separate into their ions, leaving a higher concentration of hydroxyl anions (OH  ) . This therefore causes the hydrogen potential (pH) of the solution to be higher, and remains at values ​​ranging from 8 to 14. This is the case, for example, of hydroxides, which behave according to the following equation:examples of bases in chemistry

NaOH -> Na + + OH 

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dissolved in water separates into its sodium ions (Na + ) and its hydroxyl ions (OH  ). This contributes to the increase in pH.examples of bases in chemistry

Bases according to Brönsted and Lowry

The Brönsted-Lowry Theory defines bases as substances that, when dissolved in water, are capable of accepting protons , which are the same as hydrogen ions (H + ). This is the case of NH 3 ammonia , for example, which can accept a proton to form NH + ammonium cations . This ion can combine with the hydroxyls (OH  ) of water to finally form molecules of ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH, which are also kept in constant dissociation according to the following equations:

Ammonia receives proton: NH 3 + H + -> NH +

Ammonium binds hydroxyl: NH + + OH  -> NH 4 OH

Ammonium hydroxide constantly dissociates: NH 4 OH -> NH + + OH 

Because the ammonium hydroxide also releases its hydroxyl, a high pH is maintained.examples of bases in chemistry

Bases according to Lewis examples of bases in chemistry

The Lewis Theory defines bases as chemical species that are capable of delivering electrons . It relies on Lewis structures, in which the valence electrons of each element in a molecule are indicated. In this way it can be observed which of these electrons participate in the base behavior.examples of bases in chemistry

It is used mainly when the molecule does not carry a hydroxyl. This theory and the Brönsted-Lowry theory have a more specific and analytical use, so when the base contains hydroxyl (OH-), the Arrhenius theory is used immediately, without fear of any mistake.

30 examples of bases examples of bases in chemistry

  1. Ammonia NH 3
  2. Lithium Hydroxide LiOH
  3. Sodium hydroxide NaOH
  4. Potassium hydroxide KOH
  5. Rubidium Hydroxide RbOH
  6. Cesium hydroxide CsOH
  7. Magnesium Hydroxide Mg (OH) 2
  8. Calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2
  9. Strontium hydroxide Sr (OH) 2
  10. Barium hydroxide Ba (OH) 2
  11. Aluminum hydroxide Al (OH) 3
  12. Ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH
  13. Zinc hydroxide Zn (OH) 2
  14. Ferrous hydroxide Fe (OH) 2
  15. Ferric hydroxide Fe (OH) 3
  16. Cuprous hydroxide CuOH
  17. Cupric hydroxide Cu (OH) 3
  18. Mercurous hydroxide HgOH
  19. Mercuric hydroxide Hg (OH) 2
  20. Cadmium hydroxide Cd (OH) 2
  21. Methylamine CH 3 NH 2
  22. Ethylamine CH 3 CH 2 NH 2
  23. Propylamine CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 NH 2
  24. Isopropylamine (CH 3 ) 2 CHNH 2
  25. Butylamine CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 NH 2
  26. Isobutylamine (CH 3 ) 2 CHCH 2 NH 2
  27. Terbutylamine (CH 3 ) 3 CNH 2
  28. Phenylamine C 6 H 5 NH 2
  29. Dimethylamine (CH 3 ) 2 NH
  30. Trimethylamine (CH 3 ) 3 N

 

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