Chemistry

Examples of Bases and Acids

We elaborate that what are some examples of bases and acids? In chemistry, acids and bases are the two types of highly reactive substances that, being in aqueous solution, separate into their ions and thereby modify the pH . PH is the chemical property of solutions related to the concentration of hydrogen ions (H + ) present in it. The pH scale includes the values ​​from 0 to 14, and from it it is determined whether an acid or base is strong or weak. The midpoint is the value 7 and represents the neutral pH , which is found in pure water.

 

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What are acids?

The acids are gaseous or liquid state, and that the combined water change the pH to values ranging from 6 to 0. All carry one or more hydrogen atoms which it appears as ion (H + ) when its molecules dissolve in water. Depending on how easily the hydrogens are released from their structures, it will be the strength of the acid.what are some examples of bases and acids

Acids are classified as strong and weak . The strongest acids are the hydro acids such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), due to the rapidity with which they separate into their H + and Cl  ions . The H + begins to participate in the solution immediately. If an external substance is added to the mixture, the free H + of the acid will start to attack it so that the anion, in this case the Cl  combines with its positive part.what are some examples of bases and acids

These acids are followed by oxyacids such as sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), which remain strong and have more hydrogens to contribute. On the other hand, there are weak acids . They have a harder time releasing hydrogen from their molecule. In this category, organic acids such as acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) stand out, which attract more strongly the hydrogen atom.

To compare their strengths, a glass of water is taken as a base, with pH 7 or neutral. When adding a hydracid such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) or an oxyacid such as sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), the pH will drop to values ​​such as 1, 2, 3. On the other hand, if an organic acid such as acetic acid (CH 3 COOH), will drop to 6 or 5. Maximum to 4.5.what are some examples of bases and acids

In the laboratory, acids can be recognized by litmus paper, which turns red when submerged. Its concentration can also be determined by means of the so-called neutralization volumetries , which are analyzes carried out by reacting the acid solution with an alkali solution whose concentration is already known.what are some examples of bases and acids

 

What are the bases?

The base , also known as alkalis , are substances that usually found in solid or liquid form, and that the combined water change the pH to between 8 and 14. Its chemical structure can be varied, but can be generalized taking take into account two main ones: those that contain a hydroxyl (OH  ) and those that have an amino group (-NH 2 ).what are some examples of bases and acids

The bases are classified as strong and weak. The strongest bases are hydroxides such as sodium hydroxide NaOH, because they very easily release the hydroxyl ion (OH  ) that accompanies sodium. This negative ion increases its concentration in the solution and raises the pH to values ​​of 10 to 14 depending on the hydroxide.

The weak bases are amines , whose organic structure is represented by R-NH 2 and are capable of receiving hydrogens from solution. These hydrogens are taken from water, which can be written as H-OH to understand the result of this phenomenon. When the amine takes the hydrogen (H + ) from there, the hydroxyl (OH  ) of the water remain . They change the pH from 7 to 10, approximately.

In the laboratory, the bases can be recognized by litmus paper, which turns blue when submerged. Its concentration can also be determined by means of the so-called neutralization volumetries , which are analyzes carried out by reacting the base solution with a standard solution of acid, that is, whose concentration is already known.what are some examples of bases and acids

Bases, especially potassium hydroxide (KOH) , are used in soap factories for saponification, which is the production of stearates (soaps) from fats and these bases. Stearates are the product that in contact with water has the effect of cleaning, dissolving the fats of the skin and generating the typical soapy sensation.

 

The neutralization reaction

Acids and bases are characterized because they can react with each other, counteracting each other chemically in a reaction called neutralization . If both species react stoichiometrically, that is, in just amounts, exact according to their chemical equation, the resulting pH is 7, neutral. If one of the two is in excess, the pH value will incline towards the one that it causes. If the base predominates, the pH will be greater than 7. If the acid predominates, it will be less than 7.what are some examples of bases and acids

20 examples of bases

  1. Ammonia NH 3
  2. NaHCO 3 sodium bicarbonate
  3. Calcium carbonate CaCO 3
  4. Capsaicin C 18 H 27 NO 3
  5. Ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH
  6. Lithium Hydroxide LiOH
  7. Sodium hydroxide NaOH
  8. Potassium hydroxide KOH
  9. Rubidium Hydroxide RbOH
  10. Cesium hydroxide CsOH
  11. Calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2
  12. Magnesium Hydroxide Mg (OH) 2
  13. Strontium hydroxide Sr (OH) 2
  14. Barium hydroxide Ba (OH) 2
  15. Ferrous hydroxide Fe (OH) 2
  16. Ferric hydroxide Fe (OH) 3
  17. Aluminum hydroxide Al (OH) 3
  18. Methylamine CH 3 NH 2
  19. Ethylamine CH 3 CH 2 NH 2
  20. Propylamine CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 NH 2

20 examples of acids

  1. Hydrochloric acid HCl
  2. Hydrobromic acid HBr
  3. Hydroiodic acid HI
  4. Hydrogen sulfide H 2 S
  5. Selenhydric acid H 2 Se
  6. Sulfurous acid H 2 SO 3
  7. Sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4
  8. Phosphorous acid H 3 PO 3
  9. Phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4
  10. Nitric acid HNO 3
  11. Boric acid H 3 BO 3
  12. Formic acid HCOOH
  13. Acetic acid CH 3 COOH
  14. Propionic acid CH 3 CH 2 COOH
  15. Butyric acid CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH
  16. Stearic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 16 COOH
  17. Acetylsalicylic acid C 8 H 6 O 4
  18. Citric acid C 6 H 8 O 7
  19. Chloric acid HClO 3
  20. Perchloric acid HClO 4

what are some examples of bases and acids

 

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