We explain that what are examples of alkanes in detail with definition and formula. The alkanes are chemical compounds whose molecules are composed of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) . Carbon atoms are linked to each other by C – C covalent bonds , and are capable of forming long, completely stable chains. In carbon there are four valence electrons , one of which will join each carbon that accompanies it in the chain. To cover the electrons that are left over there is hydrogen , whose atoms are bonded, sharing one electron each. In this way, the general form that a long alkane chain will have will be:
CH 3 –CH 2 – (CH 2 ) n – CH 2 –CH 3
Where: examples of alkanes
- CH 3 : end carbon. Its four electrons are shared: 1 with the next carbon, 3 with hydrogen atoms.
- CH 2 : intermediate carbon. Its four electrons are shared: 1 with the previous carbon, 1 with the next carbon, 2 with hydrogen atoms.
- (CH 2 ) n : are all intermediate carbons. The letter n indicates that it can be any number equal to or greater than 1.
The alkanes , to the consist of carbon and hydrogen, form with alkenes and alkynes large family of hydrocarbons . However, they are distinguished by having only single covalent bonds in the C – C form . This means that each carbon only needs to share 1 electron to join a carbon atom and thus achieve stability . For this reason, alkanes are also called saturated hydrocarbons .
Due to the relationship between carbon and hydrogen atoms in an alkane molecule, the general formula that characterizes alkanes is: examples of alkanes
C n H (2n + 2)
Where n is a number equal to or greater than 1.
Types of alkanes examples of alkanes
Alkanes are classified according to the shape of the structure of their molecule in:
- Linear chain alkanes
- Branched chain alkanes
- Cyclic alkanes
- Polycyclic alkanes
The straight – chain alkanes have a carbon bonded chain is straight. You can see in them the number of links that there are and which are the initial and final ends.
The branched chain alkanes having, connected to one (or more) carbons, some extra chain to which is called chain substituent or branching . Considering the complete molecule, the main chain must be established , which is the longest sequence that is formed of C – C bonds . This longest line may be in a zigzag as it includes the carbons of some branch.
The cyclic alkanes are alkanes whose molecule has the shape of a closed figure or polygon . Each vertex of this figure will be marked by a carbon in the structure. These can contain 3 carbons upwards, since the triangle is the simplest figure.
The polycyclic alkanes are linked molecules in which two or more geometric structures, defined by the cyclic alkanes are. The carbons of its closest vertices are linked, forming a stable polycyclic molecule. examples of alkanes
The methane (CH 4 ), a chemical compound consisting of a carbon atom and four hydrogen, is the simplest alkane . It is a colorless gas, odorless, tasteless and lighter than air, having little more than half its weight. It is the main component of natural gas , located in underground reservoirs where organic matter has decomposed since geological ages. It is highly flammable because the carbon-hydrogen C – H bonds that make it up break easily.
It is used as a fuel in homes because it gives enough calorific power and is easy to use. It is stored in pressurized tanks and is conducted by protected hoses or pipes for its supply. When it is reacted with hydracids, the simplest alkyl halides are formed, such as chloromethane CH 3 Cl, dichloromethane CH 2 Cl 2 , chloroform or trichloromethane CHCl 3 , and carbon tetrachloride CCl 4 . examples of alkanes
LP gas examples of alkanes
The LP gas or liquefied petroleum gas is a mixture mainly formed by alkanes 3 and 4 carbons: propane C 3 H 8 and butane C 4 H 10 . Because of them, it has a higher molecular weight than natural gas. It is also found in underground reservoirs, and provides much more calorific power because the C – C bonds when breaking in combustion provide more heat than the C – H of methane. It is usually used in industry as it requires more energy, but also in homes.
20 examples of alkanes examples of alkanes
- Methane CH 4
- Ethane C 2 H 6
- Propane C 3 H 8
- Butane C 4 H 10
- Pentane C 5 H 12
- Hexane C 6 H 14
- Heptane C 7 H 16
- Octane C 8 H 18
- Nonane C 9 H 20
- Dean C 10 H 22
- Undecane C 11 H 24
- Dodecane C 12 H 26
- Tridecane C 13 H 28
- Tetradecane C 14 H 30
- Pentadecane C 15 H 32
- Hexadecane C 16 H 34
- Heptadecane C 17 H 36
- Octadecane C 18 H 38
- Nonadecane C 19 H 40
- Eicosane C 20 H 42
20 examples of alkane derivatives
- Chloromethane CH 3 –Cl
- Dichloromethane CH 2 –Cl 2
- Trichloromethane CH – Cl 3
- Carbon tetrachloride C – Cl 4
- Chloroethane CH 3 CH 2 –Cl
- Dichloroethane CH 3 CH – Cl 2
- Trichloroethane CH 3 C – Cl 3
- Tetrachloroethane Cl – CH 2 C – Cl 3
- Chloropropane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 –Cl
- Dichloropropane CH 3 CH 3 CH – Cl 2
- Trichloropropane CH 3 CH 3 C – Cl 3
- Tetrachloropropane Cl – CH 2 CH 2 C – Cl 3
- Chlorobutane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 –Cl
- Dichlorobutane CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH – Cl 2
- Trichlorobutane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 C – Cl 3
- Tetrachlorobutane Cl – CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 C – Cl 3
- Chloropentane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 –Cl
- Dichloropentane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH – Cl 2
- Trichloropentane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 C – Cl 3
- Tetrachloropentane Cl – CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 C – Cl 3