Introduction to Biology
Biology is the scientific study of life. The word “Biology” has been derived from two Greek words; Bios meaning ‘life’ and Logos meaning ‘thought or reasoning’. In the course of biology we will study how man has thought about living things. To understand and appreciate nature, it is essential to study the structures, functions and related aspects of living organisms. The study of living organisms also provides information and remedies to human problems regarding health, food, environment etc.
Division and Branches of Biology
There are three major divisions of Biology which study the different aspects of lives of major groups of organisms.
This division of biology deals with the study of animals.
This division of the biology deals with the study of plants.
This division of biology deals with the study of microorganisms such as bacteria etc.
In order to study all the aspects of life, these divisions are further divided into different branches as defined below.
This branch deals with the study of form and structures of living organisms.
The study of internal structure is anatomy.
The microscopic study of tissues is known as histology.
The study of structures and functions of cells and cell organelles is called cell biology. This branch also deals with the study of cell division.
This branch deals with the study of functions of different parts of living organisms.
The study of genes and their roles in inheritance is called genetics. Inheritance means the transmission of characters from one generation to the others.
It is the study of development of an embryo to new individuals.
It is the study of naming and classification of organisms into groups and sub groups.
It is the study of fossils, which are the remains of extinct organisms.
It deals with the study of the interactions between the organisms and their environments.
This branch deals with the study of social behavior of the animals that make societies.
This branch deals with the study of parasites.
It deals with the practical application of living organisms to make substances for the welfare of mankind.
It is the study of immune system of animals, which defend the body against invading microbes.
It is the study of insects.
It is the study of drugs and their effects on the system of human body.