Natural Sciences


The chloroplasts are organelles present in the cells of plants and algae. Its function is closely related to photosynthesis , in fact, it is in its structure where it occurs, which is why it is of vital importance for all living beings, including plants themselves.

In the case of plants, chloroplasts play a fundamental role in the production of oxygen and other molecules that the mitochondria consume.

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They are structures that are not found in humans, fungi or animals, only in algae and plants in general.


They are unique organelles in the plant cell. Its structure is somewhat complex and chlorophyll is deposited in it.

They are disc-shaped and can reach dimensions between 4 and 6 m in diameter and a minimum of 10 m in length. They are present in greater quantity in the cells of the leaves, since in these structures it can have a better capture of sunlight.

To understand a little better about its structure and functions, it should be noted that only in a cell there can be between 40 and 50 chloroplasts, which is equivalent to up to 500,000 chloroplasts in each square millimeter of the surface of a leaf.

More specifically, each chloroplast is lined by two membranes, or a double membrane. In addition to chlorophyll, the other essential substance in these organelles is the stroma, which are traversed by a set of discs joined together, called lamellae and that form piles called grana.

Chlorophyll molecules are connected to lamellae. The sunlight captured by chlorophyll is transformed into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reducing molecules (NADPH) through a series of chemical processes carried out in grana.

Small amounts of starch are also involved in photosynthesis, which is where the products of photosynthesis are temporarily stored. These starch granules are also contained in chloroplasts.

On the other hand, there are internal cavities that have a flat shape called thylakoid . These are independent spaces of the inner membrane of the chloroplast that store proteins and other substances, such as xanthophylls .


As we have indicated previously, we owe it to the chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis, since, with the help of solar energy and other elements, it is there where oxygen and other nutrients are produced that help plants and the rest of the plants subsist. the fauna chain.

In summary, chloroplasts carry out two of the phases of photosynthesis : the light phase and the dark phase, in addition to the biosynthesis of proteins and DNA processes.

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