There are certain blood disorders. Some of these blood disorders are the following:
- Leukemia (blood cancer)
- Blue Babies
- Heart attack
Leukemia (blood cancer)
Blood Cancer is very dangerous in Blood Disorders. “The uncontrolled production of the white blood cell (leucocytes) is called Leucaemia.” The cancerous mutation in myelogenous (bone marrow cell) or lymphomatous cells causes Leucaemia. The numbers of abnormal white blood cells are increased in the blood as a result of Leucaemia.
These white blood cells are not completely differentiated. They are produced at a faster rate than normal. So they are defective. Myelogenous cells are present in the bone marrow. They may spread throughout the body. In this way, why white blood is starting producing in many other organs.
Leucaemia is divided into different types based on the type of white blood cells:
- Neutrophilic Leucaemia
- Eosinophilic Leucaemia
- Basophilic Leucaemia
- Monocytic Leucaemia
- Lymphocytic Leucaemia
Treatment: It is a very serious disorder. The blood of the patient should change regularly. It can be cured by the bone marrow transplant. It is an effective but expensive treatment.
It is discovered by the American pediatrician Thomas Cooley. This type of Blood Disorders is also called Cooley’s anemia. It is a genetically transmitted disease. The patient of the Thalassemia has abnormal hemoglobin. The hemoglobin molecules do not contain β-chain. It has F-chains. The F-chain is present only in the hemoglobin of the fetus.
Thalassemia is characterized by the following changes:
- Presence of microcytes: Immature RBC.
- Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.
- Change in the bones and skin: This diseased is more common in the children, especially in the children of Mediterranean parents.
Treatment: The blood of these patients should be replaced regularly with normal blood. It can be cured by a bone marrow transplant. The bone marrow transplant is very expensive. Its cure rate is not 100%.
Edema Blood Disorders
The presence of excessive fluid in the tissues of the body is called Oedema. The excessive fluid may be present in the cells or outsides the cells.
So there are two types of Oedema:
- Intracellular Edema: It is caused by osmosis of the water into the cell. So the supply of the nutrients and oxygen is stopped to such tissues. Thus it depresses the metabolic system of the affected cells. It also stops the Na-pump (sodium pump).
- Extracellular Edema: There are three reasons for extracellular Oedema:
- Abnormal leakage of the fluid from the blood capillaries.
- The lymphatic system fails to bring back the fluid from the intestinal fluid.
- The renal (kidney) retention of salt and water.
Effects of the Oedema:
Edema shows the following effects on the body:
- It disturbs the exchange and concentration of minerals in the blood and body cell.
- Edema affects blood pressure.
- It increases the heart load (a function of the heart).
It is very serious in Blood Disorders. Sometimes, the interatrial foramen is failed to close in the newborn baby. Or sometimes, its ductus arteriosus is failed to fully constrict. These result in cyanosis (blueness of the skin) of the baby.
In this case, the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated of the blood takes place between the two atria. This mixed blood is supplied to the body of the newborn baby. So the skin of the baby becomes blue. Thus he/she is called a blue baby.
The condition of high blood pressure is called hypertension. The prolonged high blood pressure damages the lining of the blood vessels. It also affects the muscles of the heart. It imposes the continuous strain on the heart muscles.
So, these muscles become thick and weak. It declines the efficiency of the pumping action of the heart. So blood is retained in the heart and lungs. It causes a fatal condition called congestive heart failure.
Thrombus formation and Hypertension
A solid mass or a plug of blood constituents (clot) in the blood vessels called thrombus. The process of the thrombus is called thrombosis.
The thrombus is formed in the vessels and may block the vessels wholly or partially. It may be dislodged and carry to some other parts of the circulatory system. It is called embolus on this new location. Thromboembolism is the main cause of death in western civilization.
The thrombus may be formed due to the following reasons:
- Irritation or infection of the living blood vessels.
- Reduced the rate of the blood flow, due to the long period of the inactivity.
- Pneumonia, tuberculosis, and emphysema.
Sometimes, embolus or locally formed thrombus blocks the blood vessels in the heart. This blockage causes necrosis (death) and damaged the portion of the heart muscles. This condition is called a heart attack or myocardial infarction.
The disruption of the control system of the heart causes a heart attack. The heart attack is accompanied by arrhythmias (disturbance in the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the heart), especially ventricular fibrillation (an irregular contraction of the ventricle muscles).
Prevention from the heart attack: The people can prevent themselves from the heart attacks by following these instructions:
- Avoid too much fatty food rich in cholesterol.
- Maintain normal body weight.
- Control the blood pressure by regular exercise and walk.
- Do not smoke.
Stroke Blood Disorders
Sometimes, an embolus or locally formed thrombus blocks the blood vessels in the brain. The neural tissues, surrounding the blood vessels cannot get oxygen. So necrosis or death of these tissues takes place. This condition is called stroke or cerebral infarction.
The stroke can damage different parts of the brain. So the symptoms of the stroke vary according to different parts of the brain-damaged.
The discharge of the blood from the blood vessels is called hemorrhage. The most important is brain hemorrhage. The brain hemorrhage is caused by the bursting of an artery in the brain. The way these arteries lose elasticity due to higher blood pressure. So these arteries can burst and causes a brain hemorrhage. So blood pressure must be controlled to prevent this hemorrhage.
Preventive Measures for Blood Disorders:
Following preventing measure can save a person from the heart and the blood vessels diseases:
- Taking less amount of the cholesterol in the food.
- Maintenance of the normal blood pressure.
- Do not become overweight.
- Do regular exercise.
- Avoid stress and tension.