Natural Sciences

15 Characteristics of the Solid State of Matter

States of the material

Matter can be present or found in four different forms or states, namely: solid, liquid, gas and plasma.

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Solid state

When we speak of a solid state , we refer to a rigid body that is characterized by having a constant shape and volume.

The particles of a solid body have been put together and arranged correctly. This type of element adopts very well defined shapes.

Solid state characteristics

  1. It is a state of aggregation of matter.
  2. Elasticity: it is known as the property of some solids to deform momentarily in the presence of a constant external force. After passing the constant force, the element returns to its original shape.
  3. Rigidity: solids, due to their characteristics, generally resist bending and twisting. This means that the element does not lose its shape or after it deforms, it returns to its original shape.
  4. Cohesion: the solid state has the same elements and characteristics of its liquid and gaseous variants. The difference is that the particles in this state are very united by strong bonds called the cohesive force.
  5. Fragility: it is a characteristic of the solid state; usually accompanies this element. In this case the resistance of this state is overcome by a specific force.
  6. Ductility: it is the quality of some solids, such as copper, that can deform in the presence of a constant force, transforming into threads or wires. Solids that have this capacity are called ductile.
  7. Malleability: these are the elements that can be worked through deformation, making thin sheets without breaking. This type of property is considered important in metals.
  8. Hardness: it is known as the physical resistance to the presence or incorporation of another solid element.
  9. Incomprehensibility: solid elements, unlike the other states, cannot be compressed more than it is allowed, since it can fracture, deteriorate or become smaller pieces.
  10. Solid elements are characterized by having constant strength and volume.
  11. Solid particles can only move through vibrations. They cannot move freely since their state does not allow it.
  12. Solid state particles are always in an orderly way , always having a special geometric regularity.
  13. They have a high density , so this type of element will always be heavier than the others.
  14. Resists change in shape and volume.
  15. Its molecules are held together by a large attractive force that makes them fixed.

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